The Central Processing Unit or CPU (Central processing unit) acts to process the commands given by computer users, managing them together with the data on the computer. The processing unit or device will also communicate with input, output and storage devices to carry out interrelated instructions.
In the original von Neumann architecture, he explained a Unit of Arithmetic and Logic, and a Control Unit. In modern computers, these two units are located in an integrated circuit (IC – Integrated Circuit), which is usually called the CPU (Central Processing Unit).
The Arithmetic and Logic Unit, or Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), is a tool that performs basic implementations such as arithmetic (additions, subtractions, and the like), logical execution (AND, OR, NOT), and comparisons (for example, comparing as many contents two slots for equality). In this unit the actual “work” is carried out.
The control unit stores the current commands made by the computer, instructing the ALU to execute and retrieve the information (from memory) needed to execute the command, and move the results back to the appropriate memory location. This unit functions to control the reading of computer program instructions.
Input and results
I / O allows computers to get information from the outside world, and put their work there, can be physical (hardcopy) or non-physical (softcopy). There are various types of I / O devices, from familiar keyboards, monitors and disk drives, to more unusual ones such as webcams (web cameras, printers, scanners, and so on.
What all ordinary input tools have is that they encode (convert) information from one type into data that can be further processed by a digital computer system. Output tool, decodes data into information that computer users can understand. In this sense, digital computer systems are examples of data processing systems.
The commands discussed above are not commands like human language. Computers only have a limited number of simple, well-formulated commands. The usual command that most computers understand is “copying cell contents 123, and imitation places in cell 456”, “adding cell contents 666 to cell 042, and place due to cell 013”, and “if the contents of cell 999 are 0, your next command in cell 345 “.
The instructions are represented on the computer as the numbers for “copying” might be 001, for example. A set of special commands supported by a particular computer is known as the computer machine language. In practice, people don’t usually write commands for computers directly in machine language but use “high-level” programming languages which are then translated into machine language automatically by special computer programs (interpreters and compilers). Some programming languages are closely related to machine language, such as assembler (low-level language); on the other hand, languages like Prolog are based on abstract principles that are far from the actual implementation details by the machine (high-level language).
The computer consists of 2 major parts, namely software and hardware.
• Processor or CPU as a unit that processes data
• RAM memory, a place to store temporary data
• Hard drive, semi-permanent storage media
• Input device, media used to enter data for processing by UPS, such as mouse, keyboard, and tablet
• Output device, the media used to display CPU processing outputs, such as monitors, speakers, plotter, projectors and printers
• Operating system
Basic program on a computer that connects users with computer hardware. The operating systems commonly used are Linux, Windows, and Mac OS. The tasks of the operating system include (but not only) regulate the program execution on it, coordinate input, output, processing, memory, and software installation.
• Computer program
An additional application that is installed in accordance with the operating system
Slot on the computer
• ISA / PCI, a slot for inserting non-graphic add-in cards
• AGP / PCIe, the slot for inputting graphics additions
• IDE / SCSI / SATA, slot for hard drives / ODD
• USB, the slot for plug-and-play media input (plug and play, meaning that the device can be connected to the computer and can be used immediately).
Analog computers are terms used to describe calculators that work at analog levels. The analog level here is the opposite (dual) of the digital level, which is the digital level is the voltage level ‘high’ (high) and ‘low’, which is used in the implementation of binary numbers. Basically, the electronic components used as the core of analog computers are op-amp (operational amplifiers).